Transformers are devices used to transfer alternating current electricity by induction from one circuit to another while maintaining the original frequency. Such a process usually takes place with a change in electrical voltage. In other words – Transformers allow you to transfer current energy from one voltage to another.

Transformers use the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. They were first observed in 1830 by an English physicist and chemist – Michael Faraday (creator of the famous Faraday cage).

Twenty years later, in 1850, a device was constructed which today can be considered the prototype of today's transformer. It was created by a German mechanic, Heinrich Ruhmkorff. His invention, called the Ruhmkorff inductor, was primarily used to change the voltage, while also generating large voltage pulses. It was not until 1876 that the first real transformer was built thanks to the Russian scientist Pavel Yablochkov.

Transformer construction diagram

Transformers are made of two basic elements – steel core and aluminum or copper windings, also called coils. The first of the listed components functions as a magnetic circuit and is used to conduct the magnetic flux. The core (usually made of thin, properly insulated, heavily silicated sheets to reduce losses resulting from eddy currents and hysteresis) consists of the so-called columns on which windings are wound, which in turn function as an electrical circuit.

The windings are divided into primary and secondary. Both types are galvanically separated from each other, i.e. there is no electrical connection between them, and the energy is transferred by the magnetic field. The primary winding takes energy from the source (alternating current), and the secondary winding gives it to the receiver. Transformers are used wherever there is a need to match the power supply parameters to the parameters of the device receiving electricity.

The most popular types of transformers

There are several types of transformers. Among the most popular are certainly single-phase models, which are commonly used to power electronics and household appliances. They are also used in industry, in measurement, protection and signaling circuits. Single-phase transformers can also be found in rectifiers and some welding machines.

Another type of transformers are the three-phase models. A Pole was the first in the world to construct such a device – Michal Doliwo-Dobrowolski. Today, such transformers are used mainly in industry, most often in polyphase current systems.

A very commonly used type of transformer is the energy model. It is used to lower the voltage in power grids and to distribute energy and transport it through lower voltage lines. They are placed at all stages of the transmission network. All this so that with their help it is possible to distribute energy, transport it further using lower voltage lines and finally deliver it to end users. Transformers can be divided into several types, including mains power, block, dry (air-cooled), and oil (oil-cooled).

Toroidal transformers

It is also worth mentioning toroidal transformers. These are special devices designed to handle lighting, specifically 12V halogen lighting systems. Their characteristic feature is a specific arrangement of windings on the core. They have the shape of a toroid (hence the name of the device). Such an unusual design enables reduction of losses, low dissipation reactance and reduces noise during operation.

Toroidal transformers provide high stability and enable the transformation of high powers. Individual models of this type are equipped with thermal protection or soft start systems. There are also toroidal transformers encapsulated with epoxy or electrostatic and magnetic shielding transformers.

Safety transformers and transformers

There are also so-called safety transformers. Their task is to reduce the voltage to a safe level of 24 V. They are usually used to power low-power receivers in places with a high risk of electric shock. There are also autotransformers, i.e. devices used to smoothly obtain a specific voltage. In their case, the primary and secondary windings constitute one electric circuit.

A specific type of transformers are transformers. They are used in measurement systems of large currents and voltages. They are mainly used to isolate the measuring system from high voltage electrical wires. There are also variable-voltage transformers with taps, i.e. devices that allow a step change in voltage thanks to the so-called unhook. These are additional connections that are located between the beginning and the end of the secondary winding.

As already mentioned – the operation of a transformer is associated with a change in electrical voltage. However, this phenomenon does not occur in the case of separation models. It is mainly used as one of the forms of fire protection, e.g. in places with a high degree of humidity.

Interestingly – it is quite common to see transformers referred to as machines. Meanwhile, many scientists consider them simply devices, since they have no moving parts.

High quality transformers in the el12 offer

The store offers various types of transformers. You can find the already mentioned energy, toroidal, separation, but also electronic models. This is the colloquial name of devices that are, in fact, converters of the mains voltage into variable voltage with an increased frequency used to power low-voltage halogen lamps (usually 12 V). These types of transformers ensure gentle switching on of the voltage (so-called soft start), protect against short circuits and network overloads.

We offer transformers from reputable manufacturers of this type of equipment. On you can find models of such brands as ABB, Breve, Ledix, ETI Polam, Govena, Hager, Kanlux, Kontakt-Simon, Legrand, Mean Well, Eaton, Noratel, Ospel, RelPol, Schneider Electric, Skoff, Sonel and Zamel .

We have transformers that support primary voltages of 12, 40, 115, 230, 380, 400 and 500 V and rated voltages in the range of 0.5-500 V. In addition, we offer models adapted to work with devices with a power of 0, 5 to even 8000 VA.

We make every effort to ensure that the products ordered in our store reach the indicated address in the shortest possible time. If the product is in stock, the order is usually processed within three working days. It happens, however, that a given transformer model is not in our stock. During this time, the implementation is extended to about four weeks. Information about the delivery time of the order can be found on the card of each product, just above the technical specification.