Power transformers
Transformers are used in situations where the power supply parameters must be adapted to the requirements of the electricity receiver. The principle of operation of transformers is based on the transfer of alternating current electricity to another circuit. This is done by induction, but the frequency is maintained, while the voltage value changes. The construction of transformers is based on a steel core and coil. The first part acts as a magnetic circuit and thanks to it conduction of the magnetic flux is possible. Copper or aluminum windings, i.e. a coil, are wound around the core. Windings in power transformers can be primary and secondary. In both cases, the energy is transferred by the magnetic field, but in the case of the primary winding it is taken from the source, and in the case of the secondary winding it is returned to the receiver. We can learn about the properties of a given transformer by checking the so-called nameplate. The quantities described there define the operating conditions for which the transformer was built. The basic data are: apparent power, primary and secondary voltages and currents, cooling method, short-circuit voltage, mass and rated losses. It should be remembered that most transformers are made for operation in a temperate climate. Therefore, they should be installed no higher than 1000 m above sea level. In addition, they should be placed in ventilated rooms or in the open, with the ambient temperature not exceeding 40 °C. Power transformers should also not come into contact with chemically active and flammable substances. Transformers included in the EL12 offer, when it comes to permissible loads, are adapted to the conditions compliant with the European standard PN-71/E-81000.