LED lighting is all kinds of light sources based on light-emitting diodes. The abbreviation LED comes from the English name Lighting Emitting Diode, which means a light-emitting diode, i.e. emitting light.

Unlike traditional fluorescent bulbs, these light sources do not heat up when lit. This is because luminescence is a phenomenon in which an object glows regardless of its temperature (the filament in a light bulb needs to warm up to glow). Such light can be created, for example, as a result of a chemical reaction or under the influence of electricity (then we are talking about electroluminescence).

Due to its properties (such as longer life and lower operating costs), LED lighting is becoming more and more popular both in public buildings (e.g. in offices, halls and workplaces), but also in homes and apartments.

The offer in the LED LIGHTING category includes the following products:

  • classic LED bulbs (bulbs),
  • linear LED fluorescent lamps,
  • led strips,
  • led reflector bulbs,
  • led candle bulbs,
  • Low-voltage LED bulbs,
  • LED bulbs for 230 V.

How LED lighting works

The light-emitting diode is made of two-layer semiconductors, in which, after supplying electricity, electrons pass from one layer to the other. Under the influence of the current in the diode, a physico-chemical reaction takes place, as a result of which light is created.

A light-emitting diode is usually composed of: a blue light-emitting diode and a phosphor (a chemical compound that exhibits a luminescence, or glow). Blue light stimulates the phosphor placed in the diode housing to glow, and this emits yellow-green light, which, when mixed with blue, gives white light. Simple constructions (such as indicators in car dashboards) contain only a light emitting diode in any color and a resistor.

Vóvarious colors of LED lighting

Depending on the type of phosphor, whites can range from cool to warm. This allows you to choose the light depending on whether it is to illuminate the workplace or the space for relaxation and rest (in the first case, the light should be cold, in the second warm).

Different (than white) LED light color depends on the semiconductor used – i.e. gallium arsenide or some other substance. The raw color of blue, yellow, green, orange or red may change as a result of the use of an additive or covering the diode with a phosphor.

In modern solutions, the user can not only modify the color temperature of white light, but also change the colors of lighting depending on the mood or effect to be achieved.

Changes and additional effects in terms of the color of light are possible, e.g. thanks to the combination of multi-colored diodes in light bulbs or lamps. LEDs give light of different colors without the need to use color filters. Typically, diodes that emit intense red, blue, yellow or green are offered (diodes generating colored light have the RGB LED symbol). The offer includes, for example, a 5 m long LED strip, which shines in 3 colors: red, green and blue (every third diode).

The offer of the electrical wholesaler also includes wireless controllers and touch remote controls designed to work with RGB products, such as standard LEDIX series RGB luminaires, RGB strips and modules powered by 10 ÷ 14V DC. The set, combined with RGB products, gives you the ability to smoothly set the color of light (using the remote control) and change the intensity of the selected color. In addition, the set has programs for automatic smooth and step color change. The included remote control is pre-assigned to the SLR-11 controller – immediately after installation, the set is ready for use. The advantage of the set is also the possibility of assigning other remote controls and selected transmitters of the EXTA FREE system to the controller. Thanks to this, users are not limited to one transmitter. In addition, the small dimensions of the controller enable its direct installation in the box.

What distinguishes LED lighting

One of the basic distinguishing features of LEDs is very fast switching on (they do not require time to reach full light output and do not contain harmful substances such as lead or mercury). LEDs are one of the most advanced light sources, thanks to which they are characterized by low power, very long life, and additionally they consume much less energy than traditional light sources.

LEDs don't burn out as suddenly as incandescent bulbs, because as they reach the end of their life, the light becomes dimmer. It is important, however, that the service life of this type of modern light sources is very high and reaches 50,000 hours. - 100 thousand hours (while the life of ordinary bulbs is about 1,000 - 2,000 hours).

LED light sources are also very resistant to shocks and impacts, making them more difficult to damage than incandescent or halogen lamps. LEDs can emit a focused or diffused beam of light. On the packaging of LED-ós you can find information whether their beam angle is 15, 30 or 60 degrees.

Diodes are also characterized by low inertia, which means that when switching on and off, the current consumption does not increase. During normal operation, LED lamps consume at least 80% less electricity than traditional bulbs, which is why their use can significantly reduce electricity bills.

Designations used on LED lighting

On the packaging of LED light sources you can find a lot of markings that inform the user, among others about the type of the light itself and the technical properties of the bulb itself. The most common information is:

  • bulb wattage [W],
  • indication of a traditional bulb replacement,
  • the value of the nominal luminous flux in lumens [lm] (the more lumens, the brighter the light),
  • light color in Kelvin [K] (cold or warm),
  • bulb life,
  • estimated possible number of inclusions and exclusions,
  • energy class referring to power consumption [kWh/1000h],
  • thread type (important when selecting a diode for a specific luminaire).
  • temperature range in which the device can operate.

LED lighting in the form of a strip

LED lighting is also available in the form of a strip made of modules (usually 5 cm long), which can be easily divided (even with scissors). Depending on the needs, LED strips with a standard degree of protection (IP20) or strips with an increased IP degree are used, which can be used, for example, as lighting in rooms with increased humidity (lighting the mirror in the bathroom).

It is worth remembering that LED strips should be mounted to a material that efficiently dissipates heat, because otherwise the diodes may burn out quickly. To avoid this kind of threat, it is best to mount the strips in special LED profiles.

Depending on the purpose, the LED strip can be powered with a DC voltage of 12 V or, in some cases, 24 V. When deciding only to buy a strip, special attention should be paid to the right choice of the power supply device. There are also tapes in sets with power supplies available on the market, which makes connecting them easier and simpler.

For the production of LED strips, four main types of diodes are used, which differ in power and the amount of energy consumed. These are the models:

  • LED 3528 - characterized by a low level of energy demand, at the same time at a low purchase cost. Despite its energy efficiency, the light emitting light allows for the creation of impressive arrangements.
  • slightly stronger 5050 LEDs are more often used for, for example, side lighting of stairs,
  • LED 2835 is distinguished by high quality of emitted light, low energy consumption and long life, which is why it is classified as one of the most economical strips,
  • LED 5630 have the highest power of the mentioned, sometimes comparable to outdoor lighting of street lamps.