This category of products includes earth electrodes, i.e. elements of the earthing system, which ensure the connection of earthed objects with the ground. In electrical engineering, earth rods are rods, plates, pipes and other non-insulated metal objects placed directly in the ground. This type of equipment is the basis for the lightning protection of the building. Without it, it is impossible to create a safe and durable system protecting the electrical network against overvoltages caused by atmospheric discharges.
Earth rods can be divided in several ways. The basic classification distinguishes two types: natural and artificial. The first of them is nothing more than any metal or reinforced concrete objects placed in the ground for a purpose other than grounding, although used for this purpose. These can be e.g. reinforcement, water pipes, lead sheaths and sheaths of cables, etc. Natural earth electrodes primarily fulfill a different function than protecting the electrical network against atmospheric discharges. However, due to their location and physical properties, they can additionally be a form of effective protection against such phenomena.
Artificial earth electrodes, in turn, are such constructions that are created specifically for the purpose of earthing the building. Here, subtypes of this type of security can be distinguished:
The above division of earth electrodes is based only on whether the given elements of building equipment have been installed with the primary function of lightning protection, or whether this task is performed additionally. However, there are other classifications that take into account the design of the entire earthing system.
The simplest, least labor-intensive, most effective and cheapest earth electrodes include the so-called foundation type. It ensures a high level of protection and safety of use of electrical devices, and does not affect the mechanical strength of building structures. What's more, its resistance is practically independent of the prevailing weather conditions. As the name suggests, such an earth electrode is installed in the foundation. This is a beneficial solution in many respects – first of all, this element of the building is in direct contact with the ground on a large area, which significantly affects the efficiency of the structure. Despite this, it is an earth electrode used quite rarely. This is because the installation must be done very early in the building process – usually when pouring foundations. However, this is not always possible.
An alternative to foundation earth electrodes are the so-called pin earth electrodes. They are most often performed in the case of single-family houses. These are nothing more than rods and pipes placed in the ground and connected to a grounding wire (or a hoop iron or a lightning conductor). These elements are made of non-galvanized steel. There are also rods made of hot-dip galvanized steel or electrolytically copper-plated. This is a fairly simple type of earth electrode that can be made almost non-invasively for the building, at every stage of its erection. It is only important that the minimum length of the pin earth electrode is 3 meters. Pin earth electrodes are often called type A earth electrode systems.
There are also ring earth electrodes. These are performed primarily when the pin earth electrode turns out to be insufficient, or when the foundation earth electrode has too little contact with the ground. The wrap type is constructed using hoop iron. It is a special steel tape that is used to create a closed circuit around the building. This must be placed in the ground, preferably at a depth of about 100 cm. In one place, the tape is pulled to the surface and connected to the grounding wire with a connector. Ring earth electrodes are also called type B earth electrode systems.
Earth electrodes form a system that is designed to meet the requirements of electric shock protection when using the electrical installation in the building. This purpose can be broken down into several smaller, more precise functions:
The list of materials necessary to build an earth electrode depends on what type of earth we choose. For the wrap type, a special tape will be necessary. On the other hand, with pin earth electrodes, special rods should be used. It is also important that these elements are made of appropriate materials, i.e. copper, hot-dip galvanized steel, copper-plated steel or stainless steel. Only such equipment is able to effectively discharge the electricity generated as a result of lightning discharges into the ground and thus protect the electrical installation from complete destruction.
When constructing earth electrodes, the use of short-cut solutions should be avoided. Grounding should be carried out in a homogeneous complete form. All kinds of connections, e.g. a ring earth electrode with a foundation earth electrode, may turn out to be insufficient, especially if they were created without basic knowledge in the field of electrical work. It is also worth remembering that different metals placed in moist soil assume different potentials. Connected together, they form a galvanic cell through which, as a result of the difference in potential, direct current can flow continuously. Even if it is small, it can lead to gradation of the material. This is extremely common when the wrong components are used to create the ground. In such situations, it may turn out that it will be necessary to replace the earthing system only a few years after its construction.
The offer of the EL12.pl online store includes various elements for the implementation of earthing systems. With us you can order, among others: heads, folded earth electrodes, steel tips, special rods, non-extended earth electrodes and many others. Individual products are available in various sizes and variants. Before buying, please carefully check the parameters of the accessories.
We offer elements only from reputable manufacturers, e.g. from such trusted brands as L&L, Elko-Bis or AN-KOM.
Orders are processed within three business days. The exception is the range that we currently have in our warehouses. At that time, delivery of purchases to the indicated address may take up to several weeks. Information about the approximate delivery time is on the card of each product, just below its technical specification.