An electric battery, also called a secondary cell, is a type of galvanic cell used to store electricity. It can be used repeatedly and charged with electricity, which distinguishes it from the so-called primary link. All these types of batteries store and then release energy through reversible chemical reactions in the electrolyte and at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrodes.

The first attempts to build devices that today would be considered battery prototypes date back to the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1800, the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta boasted in one of his letters to the president of the Royal Society in London about the possibilities of the constructed galvanic cell. It consisted of two plates – copper or silver and tin or zinc - dipped in a cup of salt water. Such a structure, later called the Volta stack, is today considered the beginning of the functioning of chemical cells. Their invention and use as extremely efficient sources of electricity made it possible to make numerous discoveries at the beginning of the 19th century.

The first mass-produced battery was invented in 1802 by chemist Dr. William Cruickshank. It should be noted, however, that the device he developed was a type of primary cell, so it was not suitable for recharging and reuse. The invention of secondary cells had to wait until 1859. At that time, the reusable battery was constructed by the French physicist Gaston Planté. Today, these devices are used en masse in various types of equipment and we come into contact with them practically every day.

Battery principle

The electric battery has two duty cycles. The first is charging. The device then becomes an energy receiver. The whole process takes place inside the battery, where electrical energy is converted into chemical energy. After that, the second cycle begins, which consists in the consumption of this energy. We are talking about the work of the battery at that time. The device becomes a source of electric current as a result of the conversion of chemical energy into electricity, and the effect of this is the gradual discharge of the secondary cell.

The basic parameter of each cell is its capacity, i.e. the ability to store an electric charge. This value is expressed in ampere-hours (Ah). Reversible chemical reactions, which are the basis of the operation of batteries, not only cause the device to charge and allow it to work, but also lead to side reactions that cause the equipment to lose its properties after some time.

Basic types of accumulators

There are at least several types of batteries, which differ from each other in the composition of the electrolytes and the structure of the electrodes. You can distinguish e.g. lead-acid batteries, also known as Plantego batteries. In their case, the role of the electrolyte is a solution of sulfuric acid. In turn, the electrodes are made of lead with various additives in the form of a mesh (negative electrode) and lead(IV) oxide PbO2 immobilized on a lead frame (positive electrode). This type of device is usually used in cars.

The undoubted advantage of lead-acid batteries is the ability to discharge with high current for a short time, the simplicity of the charging system and the low price in relation to the capacity. However, the weight of the product per unit of capacity may prove problematic.

Li-ion batteries

Another example of batteries are lithium-ion cells (usually marked as Li-ion). In their case, the electrodes are made of porous carbon and metal oxides, and the electrolyte is chemically complex lithium salts dissolved in a mixture of organic solvents. Typically, these types of batteries have a voltage of 3.6 volts per cell. They are currently used to power mobile devices – smartphones, laptops, tablets, etc. In recent years, there has been an increase in demand for larger packs of lithium-ion cells, which are used to power electric vehicles. They are also used experimentally in the aviation industry.

A special variety of Li-ion batteries are lithium-polymer (Li-Po) cells. In them, the liquid electrolyte is replaced by a solid polymer electrolyte, made, for example, of sponges based on polyacrylonitrile. This type of technology makes it possible to create flexible, thin and extremely flexible cells. On the other hand, they are not very resistant to overloading and such devices are used in small portable devices – cameras, mobile phones and any multimedia players.

Ni-Cd and Ni-Zn batteries

It is also worth mentioning nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries, in which the electrodes are made of basic nickel(III) oxide NiO(OH) and metallic cadmium. Until recently, they were very popular and massively used to power portable devices. Currently, due to their greater capacity, they are being replaced by the already mentioned lithium-polymer cells and nickel-metal hydride batteries, i.e. an improved version of devices based on nickel and cadmium electrodes. In this case, the role of the electrolyte is played by a spongy structure soaked in alkaline substances and a chemically complex catalyst. The batteries have a long service life.

Another type of batteries are nickel-zinc (Ni-Zn) cells, which are an improved version of Ni-Cd devices. In this case, the electrodes are made, as the name suggests, of nickel and zinc. This is quite a popular product, mainly in the form of small-sized batteries used to power simple devices. Relatively cheap, efficient, although characterized by a small number of charging cycles.

High quality batteries in the offer

In the store, we have a wide range of various types of batteries. You can buy from us simple AA cells, which can be used to power the simplest home appliances, such as watches, remote controls, game controllers, computer mice and many others. You can also find slightly larger C and D batteries, which are used in everyday devices with medium power consumption, e.g. cameras, interactive toys for children, GPS devices, flashlights, music players, etc. The offer is also complemented by NiCd batteries (also available in packs), emergency batteries, NiMH cells (perfect as replacements for older laptop batteries), replacement battery cartridges and gel batteries (a special type of lead-acid device with a gel electrolyte created by mixing sulfuric acid with silica).

On you will find batteries only from reputable manufacturers, such as Awex, Energizer, F&F, GP Batteries, Hager, MPL Power Elektro, Philips, Sonel and Schneider Electric. We offer models with a rated voltage of 1.2-12 V.

The order processing time in our store is usually several days. We make every effort to ensure that the purchased products are at the customer's home as soon as possible. It happens that a given battery is not currently in our warehouse. During this time, the delivery time may be extended to several weeks. Information about the estimated delivery time can be found on the card of each product.